Thermal Degradation of Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin with Sodium Silicate

Muh. Wahyu Syabani, Indra Perdana, Rochmadi -

Abstract


Phenol formaldehyde (PF) is thermosetting polymer that is widely used in many applications, including as an adhesive in wood industry.Modification using sodium silicate has been successfully improving the curing temperature and bonding strength. But, it’s important to studies phenol formaldehyde thermal stability, since its main application were using high temperature. In this work, the thermal stability of modified phenol formaldehyde was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA) at heating rate of 10oC/min to understand the step of the degradation process. In addition, the ash content was determined at 1000oC in order to compare the thermal stability of the PF resin samples. The amount of sodium silicate was varied in the range of 0% to 25% (w/w) in terms of sodium silicate to phenol. The experimental resultsindicate that modified PF resin has improved thermal stability in comparison with conventional PF resin. The thermogravimetric curves showedfour stage of the phenol formaldehyde thermal decomposition. The presence of sodium silicate can increase the crosslink density that improves the thermal stability at temperature lower than 700oC. However, at themperature higher than 700oC the Si-O bonding were easier to break than the methylene and methylene ether bond that lead to faster decomposition in phenol formaldehyde for higher sodium silicate concentration.


Full Text:

PDF

References


G. He, B. Riedl, Curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde resin and wood resin interaction in the presence of wood substrates, Wood Sci. Technol. 38 (2002) 69-81.

M.V. Alonso, M. Oliet,J.C. Dominguez,E. Rojo, F. Rodriguez, Thermal degradation of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resol resins, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 105 (2011) 349-356.

D. Cho, B. Il Yoon, Microstructural intrepretation of the effect of various matrices on the ablation properties of carbon fibre reinforced composites, Compos. Sci. Technol. 61(2) (2001) 271-280.

J.G. Bueso, R. Haupt, Wood composite adhesive. In: L. Pilato, editor. Phenolic resin: a century of progress, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010,pp. 163.

M. Tugtepe, S. Ozgumus, Modified phenol formaldehyde novolac resins: synthesis and thermal oxidative degradation, J. Appl. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 83(1) (2004) 71-77.

C.N. Zarate, M.I. Aranguren, M.M. Reboredo, Thermal degradation of phenolic resin, vegetable fibers and derived composites, J. Appl. Plym. Sci. 107(5) (2008) 2977-2985.

T. Periadurai, C.T. Vijayakumar, M. Balasubramanian, Thermal decomposition and flame retardant behavior of SiO2-phenolic nanocomposite, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 89(2) (2010) 244-249.

F. Taheri-Behrooz, B.M. Maher, M.M. Shokrieh, Mechanical properties modification of a thin film phenolic resin filled with nano silica particles, Comput. Mater. Sci. 96 (2015) 411–415.

P.V. Prabhakaran, K.J. Sreejith, B. Swaminathan, S. Packirisamy, K.N. Ninan, Silicon carbide wires of nano to sub-micron size from phenol-furfuraldehyde resin, J. Mater. Sci. 44 (2009) 528.

X. Hu, J. Zeng, W. Dai, W. Shi, L. Li, C. Han, EPDM/vinyl triethoxysilane modified phenol formaldehyde resin composite, Polym. Bull. 66(5) (2011) 703-710.

M. Wang, M. Leitch, C. Xu, Synthesis of phenol–formaldehyde resol resins using organosolv pine lignins,Eur. Polym. J. 45 (2009) 3380–3388.

M.A. Khan, S.M. Ashraf,Studies on thermal characterization of lignin: substituted phenol formaldehyde resin as wood adhesives,J. Therm. Anal. Cal.89(3) (2007) 993–1000.

J. Sun, R. Lin, X. Wang, X. Zhu, Z. Gao,Sodium silicate as catalyst and modifier for phenol-formaldehyde resin, Applied Mechanics and Materials. 184-185 (2012)1198-1206.

X. Liu,X. Zhang, K. Long, X. Zhu, J. Yang, PVA wood adhesive modified with sodium silicate cross-linked copolymer. In: International Conference on Biobase Material Science and Engineering, 2012, pp. 108-111.

A.W. Osetrov, S.A. Ugrymov, Assessment of activation energy of modified phenol-formaldehyde resin,Polymer Science, Series D. 9(1) (2016) 31–32.

B. Jankovic, Thermal degradation process of the cured phenolic triazine thermoset resin (Primaset(R) PT-30). Part I. Systematic non-isothermal kinetic analysis, Thermochim. Acta,519 (2011) 114-124.

I. Hamerton, Chemistry and technology of cyanate ester resins, in: I. Hamerton(Ed.), Introduction to Cyanate Ester Resins, vol. 1, Blackie, Glasgow, 1994, pp.2–5.

J. Fan, X. Hu, C.Y. Yue, Thermal degradation study of interpenetrating polymernetwork based on modified bismaleimide resin and cyanate ester, Polym. Int.52 (2003) 15–22.

J.M. Lin, C.C.M. Ma, Thermal degradation of phenolic resin/silica hybrid ceramers. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 69 (2000) 229-235.

C.P. Reghunadhan Nair, R.L. Bindu, K.N. Ninan,Thermal characteristics of addition-cure phenolic resins. Polym. Degrad.Stab. 73 (2001) 251–257.

H.A. Katzman, J.J. Mallon, W.T. Barry. Polyarylacetylene-matrix composites for solid rocket motor components.J. Adv. Mater.26 (1995)21–27.

B.D. Park, J.F. Kadla, Thermal degradation kinetics of resole phenol-formaldehyde resin/multi-walled carbon nanotube/cellulose nanocomposite. Thermochim.Acta. 540 (2012) 107–115.

L. Stephen, Thermal characterisation of the influence of additives on the curing of phenolic novolak composites, Thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, 2006, pp. 87-88.

D. Valdes, E. Nagy. Analyses/Testing, in: L. Pilato(Ed.), Phenolic Resin: A Century of Progress, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2000, pp.120–123.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISBN : 978-602-50936-0-9