The Correlation of Biodiesel Physical Properties and Titanium Tetrahedral Coordination in Silica-Titania Prepared by Different Moles Ratio of Titania Precursors

Umar Kalmar Nizar, Yohanes Manan Sitanggang, Risma Sari, Rita Sundari, Bahrizal -, Ananda Putra, Latisma D J


Palm oil cannot be used directly as biofuel due to its high boiling point and viscosity. For its application as biofuel, the palm oil is converted to biodiesel through transesterification of palm oil and methanol with catalyst addition. This work is related to the synthesis of silica-titania as catalyst in association with titanium tetrahedral coordination and the study of the effect of titanium tetrahedral coordination on biodiesel production from palm oil. A solid state method is used to synthesize silica-titania catalyst applying mole variation of both solid silica and titania. The synthesis products are characterized by FTIR and DR UV-Vis, as well as the fraction of titanium tetrahedral coordination is calculated through deconvolution method of DR UV-Vis spectra.  The results show the tetrahedral coordination of titanium increased using both solid silica and titania in the solid state method compared to that using solid titania commercial as precursor in the reaction. The mole ratio of silica and titania of 1:0.5 gave the highest percentage of titanium tetrahedral coordination. The increasing of the fraction of titanium tetrahedral coordination in silica-titania catalyst applied in reaction of palm oil and methanol can reduce the boiling point, viscosity, and density of the oil product

Full Text:



Alhassan, F. H., Rashid, U., & Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. (2015). Synthesis of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel via effectual recyclable bi-functional Fe2O3MnOSO42-/ZrO2 nanoparticle solid catalyst. Fuel, 142, 38–45.

Axelsson, L., Franzén, M., Ostwald, M., Berndes, G., Lakshmi, G., & Ravindranath, N. H. (2012). Perspective: Jatropha cultivation in southern India: Assessing farmers’ experiences. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 6(3), 246–256.

Chen, H.-S., Huang, S.-H., & Perng, T.-P. (2012). Preparation and characterization of molecularly homogeneous silica-titania film by sol-gel process with different synthetic strategies. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 4(10), 5188–95.

Chouhan, A. P. S., & Sarma, A. K. (2011). Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), 4378–4399.

Gaurav, A., Ng, F. T. T., & Rempel, G. L. (2016). A new green process for biodiesel production from waste oils via catalytic distillation using a solid acid catalyst – Modeling, economic and environmental analysis. Green Energy & Environment, 1(1), 62–74.

Ilmi, M., Kloekhorst, A., Winkelman, J. G. M., Euverink, G. J. W., Hidayat, C., & Heeres, H. J. (2017). Process intensification of catalytic liquid-liquid solid processes: Continuous biodiesel production using an immobilized lipase in a centrifugal contactor separator. Chemical Engineering Journal, 321, 76–85.

Kim, W. B., Choi, S. H., & Lee, J. S. (2000a). Quantitative Analysis of Ti-O-Si and Ti-O-Ti Bonds in Ti-Si Binary Oxides by the Linear Combination of XANES. Science, 8670–8678.

Kim, W. B., Choi, S. H., & Lee, J. S. (2000b). Quantitative Analysis of Ti - O - Si and Ti - O - Ti Bonds in Ti - Si Binary Oxides by the Linear Combination of XANES, 8670–8678.

Konwar, L. J., Mäki-Arvela, P., Salminen, E., Kumar, N., Thakur, A. J., Mikkola, J. P., & Deka, D. (2015). Towards carbon efficient biorefining: Multifunctional mesoporous solid acids obtained from biodiesel production wastes for biomass conversion. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 176–177, 20–35.

Lokman, I. M., Rashid, U., & Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. (2016). Meso- and macroporous sulfonated starch solid acid catalyst for esterification of palm fatty acid distillate. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9(2), 179–189.

Ningsih, S. K. W. (2015). Effect of various solvent on the synthesis of nio nanopowders by simple sol-gel methods and its characterization. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 15(1), 50–55.

Nizar, U. K., Efendi, J., Yuliati, L., Gustiono, D., & Nur, H. (2013). A new way to control the coordination of titanium (IV) in the sol-gel synthesis of broom fibers-like mesoporous alkyl silica-titania catalyst through addition of water. Chemical Engineering Journal, 222, 23–31.

Ren, J., Li, Z., Liu, S., Xing, Y., & Xie, K. (2008). Silica–Titania mixed Oxides: Si–O–Ti Connectivity, Coordination of Titanium, and Surface Acidic Properties. Catalysis Letters, 124(3–4), 185–194.

Shao, G. N., Sheikh, R., Hilonga, A., Lee, J. E., Park, Y. H., & Kim, H. T. (2013). Biodiesel production by sulfated mesoporous titania-silica catalysts synthesized by the sol-gel process from less expensive precursors. Chemical Engineering Journal, 215–216, 600–607.

Sosnov, E. a, Malkov, a a, & Malygin, a a. (2010). Hydrolytic stability of the Si–O–Ti bonds in the chemical assembly of titania nanostructures on silica surfaces. Russian Chemical Reviews, 79(10), 907–920.

Talebian-Kiakalaieh, A., Amin, N. A. S., & Mazaheri, H. (2013). A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Applied Energy, 104, 683–710.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
| Indoslot168 | Hoki slot 168 | Pay 4d | Bet303 Slot | Bo slot dan togel | BO Slot gacor | Situs Bocoran slot | Situs Slot Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan | Akun VIP auto Maxwin | Akun WSO slot | Slot Bonus new member 100 di awal | Akun Gacor | Slot Pay4d | Pay4d Slot | Pay4d | Tembak ikan | Slot Dana | Gacor303 | agen slot 168 | Slot Luar Negeri | Toto Slot 168 | Slot Winrate Tertinggi | Slot Gacor Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan | Daftar Slot Via Dana | Bocoran Slot Gacor | 4D Slot | Oxplay slot | Link Laskar303 | Link Bethoki303 | Link Server4D | Link MBS303 | Laskar303 slot login | Bethoki303 slot login | IDNSLOT | Server4d slot login | MBS303 slot login | Ratuslot303 | Ratu Slot303 | Spin303 slot | 4D Slot | Slot Hoki | Indoslot | Indoslot777 | Indoslot168 | Mainslot168 | Main Slot Online | Indo Slot | | Star777 | 4D Slot | Slot Gacor | Pay4d | Agen PAY4D | Bet303 | Slot Server Kamboja | Slot dan Togel | Oxplay | Situs Judi Slot Terbaik dan Terpercaya | RTP Live | Situs Live RTP Slot | RTP Bethoki303 | RTP Live Ratuslot303 | RTP Spin303 |